Network Medicine: Complex Systems in Human Disease and Therapeutics

Network Medicine: Complex Systems in Human Disease and Therapeutics

Edited by Joseph Loscalzo, Albert-Laszlo Barabasi, and Edwin K. Silverman

Big data, genomics, and quantitative approaches to network-based analysis are combining to advance the frontiers of medicine as never before. Network Medicine introduces this rapidly evolving field of medical research, which promises to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. With contributions from leading experts that highlight the necessity of a team-based approach in network medicine, this definitive volume provides readers with a state-of-the-art synthesis of the progress being made and the challenges that remain. Medical researchers have long sought to identify single molecular defects that cause diseases, with the goal of developing silver-bullet therapies to treat them. But this paradigm overlooks the inherent complexity of human diseases and has often led to treatments that are inadequate or fraught with adverse side effects. Rather than trying to force disease pathogenesis into a reductionist model, network medicine embraces the complexity of multiple influences on disease and relies on many different types of networks: from the cellular-molecular level of protein-protein interactions to correlational studies of gene expression in biological samples. The authors offer a systematic approach to understanding complex diseases while explaining network medicine’s unique features, including the application of modern genomics technologies, biostatistics and bioinformatics, and dynamic systems analysis of complex molecular networks in an integrative context. By developing techniques and technologies that comprehensively assess genetic variation, cellular metabolism, and protein function, network medicine is opening up new vistas for uncovering causes and identifying cures of disease.

Network Science

Network Science

Albert-László Barabási

Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network science.

Hungarian Network Science
Hungarian Network Science
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Bursts

Bursts

Albert-László Barabási

Bursts: is about... The Hidden Pattern Behind Everything We Do... A revolutionary new theory showing how we can predict human behavior. Can we scientifically predict our future? Scientists and pseudo scientists have been pursuing this mystery for hundreds and perhaps thousands of years. But now, astonishing new research is revealing patterns in human behavior previously thought to be purely random. Precise, orderly, predictable patterns... Albert-László Barabási, already the world's preeminent researcher on the science of networks, describes his work on this profound mystery in Bursts, a stunningly original investigation into human nature in the light of Big Data. His approach relies on the digital reality of our world, from mobile phones to the Internet and email, because it has turned society into a huge research laboratory. All those electronic trails of time stamped texts, voicemails, and internet searches add up to a previously unavailable massive data set of statistics that track our movements, our decisions, our lives. Analysis of these trails is offering deep insights into the rhythm of how we do everything. His finding? We work and fight and play in short flourishes of activity followed by next to nothing. The pattern isn't random, it's "bursty." Randomness does not rule our lives in the way scientists have assumed up until now. Illustrating this revolutionary science, Barabási artfully weaves together the story of a 16th century burst of human activity-a bloody medieval crusade launched in his homeland, Transylvania-with the modern tale of a contemporary artist hunted by the FBI through our post 9/11 surveillance society. Barabási's astonishingly wide range of examples from seemingly unrelated areas include how dollar bills move around the U.S., the pattern everyone follows in writing email, the spread of epidemics, and even the flight patterns of albatross. Bursts reveals what this amazing new research is showing us about where individual spontaneity ends and predictability in human behavior begins. The way you think about your own potential to do something truly extraordinary will never be the same.

EDITORIAL REVIEWS

"In Linked, Barabási showed us how complex networks unfold in space. In Bursts, he shows us how they unfold in time. Your life may look random to you, but everything from your visits to a web page to your visits to the doctor are predictable, and happen in bursts." -Clay Shirky, author of Here Comes Everybody
"Barabási is one of the few people in the world who understand the deep structure of empirical reality." -Nassim Nicholas Taleb, author of The Black Swan "Barabási brings a physicist's penetrating eye to a sweeping range of human activities, from migration to web browsing, from wars to billionaires, from illnesses to letter writing, from the Department of Homeland Security to the Conclave of Cardinals. Barabási shows how a pattern of bursts appears in what has long seemed a random mess. These bursts are both mathematically predictable and beautiful. What a joy it is to read him. You feel like you have emerged to see a new vista that, while it had always been there, you had just never seen." -Nicholas A. Christakis, M.D., Ph.D., coauthor of Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives "Bursts is a rich, rewarding read that illuminates a cutting-edge topic: the patterns of human mobility in an era of total surveillance. The narrative structure of Barabási's provocative book mimics the very pattern of bursts, as abrupt jumps through the lives of a post-modern sculptor, a medieval Hungarian revolutionist, and Albert Einstein eventually converge on a single theme: that our unthinking behaviors are governed by a deeper meaning that can only be deciphered through the brave lens of mathematics." -Ogi Ogas, Ph.D., and Sai Gaddam, Ph.D., Boston University "Barabási, a distinguished scientist of complex networks, bravely tests his innovative theories on some historic events, including a sixteenth-century Crusade that went terribly wrong. Whether or not the concept of "burstiness" is the key to unlocking human behavior, it is nonetheless a fascinating new way to think about some very old questions." -Thomas F. Madden, Ph.D., Professor of Medieval History, Saint Louis University, author of The New Concise History of the Crusades In his first book, Linked, Barabási introduced us to the interrelatedness of the universe and to the emerging field of network science. Here, the physicist shows how to use that knowledge to predict seemingly random human behavior. Or the spread of a viral epidemic through populations. Or the convoluted trails that money follows. Like the “unexplained” erratic motion of tiny objects floating through water that fascinated Einstein at the turn of the 20th century, apparent stochasticity, says Barabási, can all be explained—and predicted—by elegant mathematical formulas. And for the first time in history, we’re beginning to have the right data to plug into such formulas. Using algorithms built in his lab, fueled by reams of data we unthinkingly create in our daily digital interactions (carrying around and communicating with mobile devices, withdrawing money from ATMs, making online purchases), Barabási demonstrates how much of human activity occurs in quantifiable patterns known as “bursts.” These bursts seem to define us: from our emailing and web-browsing patterns to how we move about the world. But in Bursts, this realization surfaces only as the sum effect of a nigh-schizoid storyteller’s account of historical and personal events. Driven by colorful characters and an experimental plot structure that jumps between ostensibly unrelated narratives, the book weaves a bloody crusade, the papacy, 9/11, and FBI surveillance into a tidy package. The effect is enthralling: less like listening to a lecture at a research conference, and more like sitting at a bar with a clever friend who charms you with his semi-implausible anecdotes. After nursing the last beer, beyond being amused, you’ll have learned something truly profound about the curious paths of human activity.
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Questions & Answers with Albert-László Barabási

Marco Visscher, Ode: What exactly is a burst? ALB: A burst is a sudden escalation in our activity pattern, characterized by an excessive focus on a certain type of task at the exclusion of all other responsibilities. It is like the thunder of drums in a Beethoven masterpiece, punctuated by the pleasing sound of the violins that preceded and follow them.
Marco Visscher, Ode: What is a good example of a burst? ALB: We may not even be aware of it, but each day we participate in many small bursts. We originally discovered bursts in the email pattern of individuals. Indeed, if we follow the sequence of emails sent by any person, we will not see a random and uniform stream of messages that most previous theories of human communication predict--we will witness instead short periods of intensive email activity, when the users fire out several, occasionally dozens of emails, followed by long periods of e-science. Soon we started to see similar bursts in all human activities that we could collect data for, from phone calls to the financial transactions of stock brokers; from Wikipedia edits to visits to the library. What surprised us most, however, was that all these bursty patterns followed the same precise mathematical law. We were seeing a peculiar rhythm of life that none of the individuals generating these bursts were aware of.
Marco Visscher, Ode: How do bursts occur? ALB: At first it appeared that burst occur randomly but we soon learned that they have a simple origin: prioritizing. Indeed, whether we do it consciously or subconsciously, we prioritize, often many times each day.As I show in Bursts, each time people prioritize their tasks, their behavior becomes bursty. If, however, we let a dice run our life, all signatures of burstiness disappear.
Marco Visscher, Ode: Can we predict the next burst (when, what)? ALB: Yes and no. To be sure, our daily activity is far more predictable than we are often comfortable of acknowledging, a major topic of the book. Consequently, we can in principle predict quite a number of things, from our whereabouts to potentially the timing of our email messages. While we know exactly our predictability when it comes to where we are (and it is frighteningly high), we have not yet tried to predict bursts. It may not be impossible.
Marco Visscher, Ode: How does the idea of bursts change the way we look at society? ALB: We often think of the society as a smooth machinery with its internal clock, where events proceed more or less seamlessly along their tracks. In reality, most events follow a bursty pattern, which, if understood, will change the way we approach them, and the way we get things done. Bursts is not a self-help book, but I believe that if we understand the patterns behind the rhythm of our daily activity, we are in much better position to be in tune with them and eventually exercise control over them. It has certainly changed they way I deal with the people I work with-- if we are stuck, the most remedy comes through revisiting our priorities, rather than placing blame. Marco Visscher Managing Editor
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Linked

Linked

Albert-László Barabási

In the 1980's, James Gleick's Chaos introduced the world to complexity. Albert-László Barabási's Linked reveals the next major scientific leap: the study of networks. We've long suspected that we live in a small world, where everything is connected to everything else. Indeed, networks are pervasive--from the human brain to the Internet to the economy to our group of friends. These linkages, it turns out, aren't random. All networks have an underlying order and follow simple laws. Understanding the structure and behavior of these networks will help us do some amazing things, from designing the optimal organization of a firm to stopping a disease outbreak before it spreads catastrophically.In Linked, Barabási, a physicist whose work has revolutionized the study of networks, traces the development of this rapidly unfolding science and introduces us to the scientists carrying out this pioneering work. These "new cartographers" are mapping networks in a wide range of scientific disciplines, proving that social networks, corporations, and cells are more similar than they are different, and providing important new insights into the interconnected world around us. This knowledge, says Barabási, can shed light on the robustness of the Internet, the spread of fads and viruses, even the future of democracy. Engaging and authoritative, Linked provides an exciting preview of the next century in science, guaranteed to be transformed by these amazing discoveries.

Table of Contents

The First Link: Introduction The Second Link: The Random Universe The Third Link: Six Degrees of Separation The Fourth Link: Small Worlds The Fifth Link: Hubs and Connectors The Six Link: The 80/20 Rule The Seventh Link: Rich Get Richer The Eigth Link: Einstein's Legacy The Nineth Link: Achilles' Heel The Tenth Link: Viruses and Fads The Eleventh Link: The Awakening Internet The Twelfth Link: The Fragmented Web The Thirteenth Link: The Map of Life The Fourteenth Link: Network Economy .. and The Last Link, by the time you it, this book could alter the way you think about all of the networks that affect our lives.

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The Structure and Dynamics of Networks

The Structure and Dynamics of Networks

Albert-László Barabási, Mark Newman, Duncan J. Watts

From the Internet to networks of friendship, disease transmission, and even terrorism, the concept--and the reality--of networks has come to pervade modern society. But what exactly is a network? What different types of networks are there? Why are they interesting, and what can they tell us? In recent years, scientists from a range of fields--including mathematics, physics, computer science, sociology, and biology--have been pursuing these questions and building a new "science of networks." This book brings together for the first time a set of seminal articles representing research from across these disciplines. It is an ideal sourcebook for the key research in this fast-growing field. The book is organized into four sections, each preceded by an editors' introduction summarizing its contents and general theme. The first section sets the stage by discussing some of the historical antecedents of contemporary research in the area. From there the book moves to the empirical side of the science of networks before turning to the foundational modeling ideas that have been the focus of much subsequent activity. The book closes by taking the reader to the cutting edge of network science--the relationship between network structure and system dynamics. From network robustness to the spread of disease, this section offers a potpourri of topics on this rapidly expanding frontier of the new science.

Fractal Concepts In Surface Growth

Fractal Concepts In Surface Growth

Albert-László Barabási, H.E. Stanley

Fractals and surfaces are two of the most widely-studied areas of modern physics. In fact, most surfaces in nature are fractals. In this book, Drs. Barabási and Stanley explain how fractals can be successfully used to describe and predict the morphology of surface growth. The authors begin by presenting basic growth models and the principles used to develop them. They next demonstrate how models can be used to answer specific questions about surface roughness. In the second half of the book, they discuss in detail two classes of phenomena: fluid flow in porous media and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In each case, the authors review the model and analytical approach, and present experimental results. This book is the first attempt to unite the subjects of fractals and surfaces, and it will appeal to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in condensed matter physics and statistical mechanics.